Sunday, February 23, 2020

Organizational Response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Organizational Response - Essay Example ees to abide by new roles or responsibilities associated with a more complex structure; and (5) the need to adopt and adjust to the responses of the clientele and other stakeholders, resulting from changes in the functional structure (Jones, 2007). With the problems that were noted, the organizations should be able to respond through the application of the following strategies: (1) adhere to the guidelines presented regarding the principles of bureaucracy; (2) design updated policies and procedures to fit and match changes in the functional structure; (3) properly communicate the changes to stakeholders (employees, management, clients (if needed), and external parties (state or federal agencies, members of the local community, investors and affiliates) who need to be informed; (4) train personnel regarding the need to adapt and adjust to the development and changes made within a more complex functional structure; and (5) monitor and evaluate the performance of personnel to identify strengths or weaknesses in undertaking roles and responsibilities that ensue after the growth or development in functional structure have been

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Bringing Wolves back into the wild Research Paper

Bringing Wolves back into the wild - Research Paper Example lupus species (Wolf Haven International, 2013). Wolf Haven International is also largely responsible for the advocacy of the wolf restoration programs and for their implementation once the law has already approved them. More importantly, however, the organization seeks to defend the claims that wolves are harmless creatures and should therefore be restored back to their original sanctuary in the wild (Wolf Haven International, 2013). Several reasons for this include the benefits of wolves to the ecosystem and the lack of evidence to support the alleged danger of wolves. According to Frank (2012), a new research study in Yellowstone claimed that the restoration of wolves into their original wildlife sanctuary resulted in â€Å"many parts of the ecosystem [becoming] more vibrant and multifaceted.† There is actually nothing mystical or supernatural about this claim. The explanation is that the presence of wolves in their natural sanctuary has led to their consumption of the elk population in the area. Thus, this has resulted in the thriving of aspens, cottonwoods and willows because of such reduction in the elk population, which is considered their main consumers. Moreover, this has also led to the growth of more diverse trees and plants in the area, thus not only increasing the diversity of the ecosystem and producing a much cleaner environment. The increase in the diversity of the plant species and the reduction in the elk population in the sanctuary of the wolves produced higher oxygen levels and therefore cleaner rivers and streams. Thus, t hese bodies of water have become a better habitat for beaver and fish, which in turn served as food for bears and birds. Furthermore, there was also a relative increase in the number of bisons because they used to compete with elks in the area before the wolves were reintroduced. The reduction of

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Slogan My Teacher My Hero Essays and Term Papers Essay Example for Free

Slogan My Teacher My Hero Essays and Term Papers Essay Northern and Southern Dynasties (386 589) The Northern and Southern Dynasties period (386 589) was a time of division in Chinese history, during which the Yellow River watershed of China first experienced a period of cultural transformation under the rule of a minority group. After the fall of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317 420), four regimes the Song, the Qi, the Liang, and the Chen appeared one after the other in south China. In north China the Northern Wei, the Eastern Wei, the Western Wei, the Northern Qi, and the Northern Zhou regimes also emerged at the same time. In Chinese history, the northern and southern regimes together are known as the Northern and Southern Dynasties. This period of time began in 386 and ended in 589, during which time China experienced 203 years of division and wars. The Southern Dynasties In 420, General Liu Yu deposed the emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, made himself emperor, and made Song the state title. Learning a lesson from the destruction of the Eastern Jin, Liu Yu refused to give important positions to noble families. Because he himself was from a poor family, he favored those of similar background to his and gave military power to his sons. As a result, the Song didnt repeat the mistake of the Eastern Jin. Unexpectedly, there was fighting and killing among the sons. In 422, Liu Yu died, and Emperor Wendi inherited the throne ruling for 30 years. Song experienced a prosperous period of time under the reign of Emperor Wendi, during which time the economy and culture both developed. Although there were wars against the Northern Wei in north China, each side achieved victories and suffered defeats, balancing power between the north and south. In 454, Wendi died, and Emperor Wudi took over the throne followed by Emperor Mingdi. They were both tyrants who killed their brothers and distrusted their ministers and generals. During their rule state politics fell into disorder. In 479, Minister Xiao Daocheng seized the chance to destroy the Song Dynasty and established the Qi Dynasty. Only existing for 23 years, the Qi Dynasty was the shortest dynasty among the four regimes of the Southern Dynasties. Because of Xiao Daocheng and his sons sensible and stable policies, a period of steady development ensued during their rule. However, afterwards, their successors repeated the mistakes of the Song Dynasty. They killed their brothers, uncles and nephews, and nearly all the ministers. In 501, Minister Xiao Yan revolted, overthrew the Qi Dynasty, and founded the Liang Dynasty. After overthrowing the Qi Dynasty, Xiao Yan established the Liang Dynasty and ruled for 48 years. During his rule, the Northern Wei Dynasty in north China declined, so it was a good opportunity for south China to challenge them. Being fatuous and incapable, Xiao Yan allowed his ministers to exploit the people and ignored the advice of loyal ministers. In 548, General Hou Jing of the Eastern Wei, who had surrendered to the Liang dynasty, mutinied. He colluded with Xiao Zhengde, a son of Xiao Yan, to attack the Liang State. The next year, Hou Jing captured the capital city of the Liang Dynasty, and discovered that Xiao Yan had already starved to death. Then Hou Jing killed the successor-Xiao Gangand the Liang was at the edge of collapse. In 557, Chen Baxian, who grew up during the punitive wars against Hou Jing, cut the throat of the last Liang emperor and established the Cheng Dynasty. Through years of war, the economy of southern China had been destroyed badly, so the Chen Dynasty was destined to exist for only a short period of time. Chen Baxian and his successors Emperors Wendi and Wudi had destroyed their enemies and defeated the army of Northern Qi in Jiankang ( Nanjing today), which consolidated the rule of the Chen Dynasty to some extent. However, the Chen Dynastys reign was limited south of the Yangtze River and to the east of Yichang City and the central government was weak. In 583, north China was unified by the Sui Dynasty (581 618), and the unification of the whole of China was expected at any hour. In 589, Yang Jian, Emperor Wendi of the Sui Dynasty destroyed the Chen Dynasty and ended nearly 300-years of division in China. The Northern Dynasties Toward the end of The Sixteen Kingdoms of the Five Barbarian Peoples period, the Tuoba Xianbei people, a primitive minority nomadic group, gradually grew powerful. They occupied central China and established the Northern Wei Dynasty. Later, they destroyed all the independent regimes in north China, and unified the region. As the most influential dynasty among the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the Northern Wei ruled north China for over 100 years, with 12 emperors from nine generations. By the end of the fifth century, Xianbei assimilation into the Han Chinese culture had accelerated in the Northern Wei Dynasty. In 493, Emperor Xiaowen moved the capital from Pingcheng (Datong City in Shanxi Province today) to Luoyang City, and changed their family name from Tuba to Yuan at the same time. He forbade the use of the Xianbei language and the wearing of Xianbei clothing. Emperor Xiaowen attempted to assimilate with the Han people by limiting Xianbei culture. Through a series of reformations, the Han peoples advanced culture and political system was fully integrated into the Xianbei government of the Northern Wei, and north China entered into a new period of cultural fusion. However, after Emperor Xiaowens death, his successors gradually abolished his Han-Chinese assimilation policy because of the opposition of some reactionary nobles and Xianbei army men. The restoration of the Xianbei peoples privilege aroused new social frictions, and the Northern Wei began to fall into disunity and war. Later, the powerful officials Gao Huan and Yuwen Tai divided the territory of the Northern Wei into two parts – east and west. Eastern Wei (534 550) under Gao Huan lasted 16 years with Yecheng (Handan city in Hebei Province today) as the capital. Western Wei (535 556) established by Yuwen Tai experienced a history of 22 years with Changan (Xian today) as the capital. Eastern and Western Wei were then conquered by the Northern Qi (550 577) and the Northern Zhou (557 581). In 577, the Northern Zhou destroyed the Northern Qi, and north China was reunified. In 581, Yang Jian, a relative of the Northern Zhou empress, dethroned Emperor Jingdi and made himself emp eror. He changed the state title to Sui, and named himself Wendi. Then, Yang Jian destroyed the Chen Dynasty in southern China and reunified all of China. Religion, Culture and Science During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Buddhism, an emerging religion from India, was introduced into China. At that time, almost all the Xianbei people believed in Buddhism, especially in the Bodhisattva. People believed they could free their soul from suffering only if they prayed for help from the Bodhisattva. Because of the popularity of Buddhism, Buddhist statues, murals and grottoes were built on an unprecedented scale. The Mogao Caves, the Yungang Grottoes, the Longmen Grottoes, and the Maijishan Grottoes were all masterpieces of that time. With Wang Xizhi and Xie He as the most famous, calligraphers and painters flourished in large numbers at that time. The noted works Classics on Waters and Qiminyaoshu were produced during this time. In science, Zu Chongzhi was the first person in the world to work out the value of π (the ratio between the circumference and the diameter of a circle) to be between 3.1415926 and 3.1415927. In addition, Doctor Tao Hongjing wrote Zhouhou Fang which had a great influence on the development of traditional Chinese medicine.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Great War :: essays research papers

America Enters the Great War.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  World War I (1914-18), also known as the Great War, was a military conflict mainly in Europe, among most of the world's greatest powers. The Allies consisted of France, Britain, Russia, and America who fought against the Central powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. The main causes of the Great War were imperialist, territory, and economic rivalries of the two sides. The German Empire was determined to establish itself as the preeminent power of Europe. The Germans were also intent on challenging the naval superiority of Britain. The rampant nationalism especially evident in the Austro-Hungarian empire that ignited the immediate cause of hostilities. Archduke Francis Ferninand on June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. The following month, after its humiliating demands were turned down, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Other declaration of war followed quickly as every major po wer in Europe was in the war. On the Western Front, the Germans rampaged through Belgium, and proceeded onto Paris before advancing to the English Channel. After the battles of Marne and Ypres, the Germans became stalled. Grueling trench warfare and the use of chemical warfare began all along the front, and for the next three years the battle lines remained virtually stationary despite huge casualties at Verdun and it the Somme offensive during 1916. On the Eastern Front, the Central Powers were successful. The Germans defeated the Russians (Aug.-Sept. 1914) at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes. Serbian and Montenegro fell by the end of 1915. In the south, the Italian campaigns were inconclusive, through they benefited the Allied cause by keeping large numbers of Austrian troops tied down there. In Turkey, the Allies' ambitious Gallipolli Campaign (1915), an attempt to force Turkey out of the war, was a costly failure. In the Middle East, T.E. Lawrence stirred Arab revolt against Tu rkey. America neutrality had been threatened since 1915, when the British ship Lusitania was sunk. By 1917 unrestricted German submarine warfare had caused the U.S. to enter the war on the side of the Allies. An American Expeditionary Force, commanded by General Pershing, landed in France and saw its first action at Chateau-Thierry (June 1917). In Marne (1918), the new Soviet government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers. The Germans were stopped just short of Paris in the second battle of the Marne, and an allied counteroffensive was successful. The Great War :: essays research papers America Enters the Great War.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  World War I (1914-18), also known as the Great War, was a military conflict mainly in Europe, among most of the world's greatest powers. The Allies consisted of France, Britain, Russia, and America who fought against the Central powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. The main causes of the Great War were imperialist, territory, and economic rivalries of the two sides. The German Empire was determined to establish itself as the preeminent power of Europe. The Germans were also intent on challenging the naval superiority of Britain. The rampant nationalism especially evident in the Austro-Hungarian empire that ignited the immediate cause of hostilities. Archduke Francis Ferninand on June 28, 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated at Sarajevo by a Serbian nationalist. The following month, after its humiliating demands were turned down, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Other declaration of war followed quickly as every major po wer in Europe was in the war. On the Western Front, the Germans rampaged through Belgium, and proceeded onto Paris before advancing to the English Channel. After the battles of Marne and Ypres, the Germans became stalled. Grueling trench warfare and the use of chemical warfare began all along the front, and for the next three years the battle lines remained virtually stationary despite huge casualties at Verdun and it the Somme offensive during 1916. On the Eastern Front, the Central Powers were successful. The Germans defeated the Russians (Aug.-Sept. 1914) at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes. Serbian and Montenegro fell by the end of 1915. In the south, the Italian campaigns were inconclusive, through they benefited the Allied cause by keeping large numbers of Austrian troops tied down there. In Turkey, the Allies' ambitious Gallipolli Campaign (1915), an attempt to force Turkey out of the war, was a costly failure. In the Middle East, T.E. Lawrence stirred Arab revolt against Tu rkey. America neutrality had been threatened since 1915, when the British ship Lusitania was sunk. By 1917 unrestricted German submarine warfare had caused the U.S. to enter the war on the side of the Allies. An American Expeditionary Force, commanded by General Pershing, landed in France and saw its first action at Chateau-Thierry (June 1917). In Marne (1918), the new Soviet government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers. The Germans were stopped just short of Paris in the second battle of the Marne, and an allied counteroffensive was successful.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Lord Of the Flies Mood Essay

With close reference to the extract, show how William Golding creates mood and atmosphere here. (10) In this extract, we notice that it is the ending events of the novel. So, we can identify that all chaos and destructive events have taken place; as a result, their impacts upon the characters have taken their toll. In the opening lines of the extract, Golding (straight away) creates a sombre mood towards Ralph, when the officer said ‘How many of you are there’ and Ralph responded by shaking ‘his head.’ What this shows is that Ralph is clearly astonished and mesmerized – as if he had a flashback- by all the misfortune that occurred on the island. He does not reply verbally, but, by the absence of this, Golding creates an additional distressful mood between Ralph and the reader; which in turn creates a sorrowful atmosphere. This atmosphere is prolonged through when we see the description on the appearance of Ralph. When asked about authority, Ralph says that he is in charge, ‘I am,’ however after this; a sense of visual cleansing effect emerges. In other words, as a reader, it is like the wool has been taken away from Ralph’s eyes, as he realises who he really is, ‘A little boy,’ with a ‘black cap’ and ‘red hair.’ Next we see that the mood changes into a remorseful one when in this section; Ralph may have been reminded of the withdrawal of an adult figure. Yet, when reminded of piggy through the ‘spectacles’ he ‘changed his mind’ and ‘stood still.’ What I infer from this is that Ralph is reminded from the rational and parent like figure of Piggy: which in turn creates a despairing atmosphere. This atmosphere is maintained throughout the extract. We see next that the officer is quite disappointed as a group of ‘British Boys’ would have put on a ‘better show.’ This disappoin ted mood, created by Golding, is inserted to show the escalation of violence and change that has commenced on the island. Also, the removal of law and justice in which the British are popularised to uphold. Ralph himself realises this and through his response, we see his how this was to be, but later, this ‘British society’ had fallen out of hand. ‘It was like that at first,’ ‘we were together then.’ Golding shows this disappointed atmosphere through Ralph’s unfinished sentences. In the last two paragraphs, realisation, of their surroundings, between all the characters have been distinguished. This atmosphere is seen as the island was once a ‘strange glamour,’ now its ‘scorched up.’ Furthermore, with the deaths of Simon, and ‘jack had†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ killed Piggy, tears and sobbing took them  all. In this, we see that there are contrasts to the father and child theme. We see this by the words ‘filthy body’ and ‘unwiped nose’ which can relate to childish features. As a result, this creates a heartfelt mood towards the characters. In the ending, we see that the officer looks at the tri m cruiser in the distance. Why Golding created this is possibly (in my speculation) as a new leaf/page, a symbol for freedom, in turn, creates a positive atmosphere.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay on Greek Architecture - 2001 Words

Greek Architecture: History and Mechanics nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Throughout history, there have been several significant architectural movements. The last, and perhaps most enduring movement is that of Classic Greece. Although for centuries, the architecture of ancient Greece has been admired, mimicked, and replicated, its beginnings are somewhat surprising to one unfamiliar with the history of the region. It is important to understand the history and mechanics of Classic Greek architecture in order to fully appreciate its form, function, and beauty. â€Å"Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship that are the hallmarks of Greek art in general. The formulas they invented as early as the sixth†¦show more content†¦One of the most famous examples of Minoan architecture is â€Å"†¦the palace at Knossos, their chief city, located near the northern coast of the island, was five stories high and consisted of hundreds of interconnected rooms† (Nardo, 12). Nardo states â €Å"there is evidence that these were highly sophisticated buildings with modern-style plumbing features, such as flush toilets and clay pipes carrying hot and cold water. As many as thirty to fifty thousand people lived in the palace at Knossos and in the city that surrounded it. And there were dozens, perhaps hundreds of Minoan cities and towns on Crete and the islands of the Aegean Sea, the inlet of the Mediterranean Sea bordering eastern Greece† (Nardo, 12). â€Å"Because the Minoans kept few records and no histories, their culture had been largely forgotten by the time of the classical Greeks. Yet a few vague memories of Minoan days remained, passed on by word of mouth over the course of many centuries† (Nardo, 13). It is this little bit of information that was orally passed down which became the foundation for the classical Greek style, when combined with the Egyptian influences to come. â€Å"Greek Life was dominated by religion and so it is not surprising that the temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful. They also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride, or offer thanksgiving to the patron deity of a city for success in war† (ancientgreece.com). TheShow MoreRelatedGreek Architecture1563 Words   |  7 PagesThe Greek culture has had a huge impact on the history of the world. There is something Greek in almost everything, especially in the worlds architecture. Greece no longer had one king, so they focused on building temples for their gods. Architecture began small and plain but evolved into impressive pieces of art. As time passed from the Archaic period to the Hellenistic period, the people of Greece developed a type of formula for their buildings and their pieces of art. In Ancient Greece,Read MoreThe Architecture Of Modern Greek Architecture Essay2233 Words   |  9 Pagescomprehend the history and mechanics of Classic Greek engineering with a specific end goal to completely value its frame, capacity, and excellence. â€Å"Ancient Greek architects strove for the precision and excellence of workmanship that are the hallmarks of Greek art in general. The formulas they invented as early as the sixth century B.C. have influenced the architecture of the past two millennia† (metmuseum.org). This paper will cover the essential types of Greek design and the reasoning behind the importantRead MoreClassical Greek Architecture On Modern Architecture959 Words   |  4 PagesClassical Greek Architecture in Carlisle The influence of Classical Greek Architecture on modern architecture is evident all over Pennsylvania. Carlisle, in particular, is full of old buildings that utilize the styles of the Greek Classical Period. The Old Cumberland County Courthouse is a perfect example of how the architectural styles of the Classical Period have been carried out through time. This building is a historical landmark, located in downtown Carlisle, which was built in 1846 and currentlyRead MoreEssay on Greek Architecture1558 Words   |  7 PagesGreek Architecture The Greek culture has had a huge impact on the history of the world. There is something Greek in almost everything, especially in the world’s architecture. Greece no longer had one king, so they focused on building temples for their gods. Architecture began small and plain but evolved into impressive pieces of art. As time passed from the Archaic period to the Hellenistic period, the people of Greece developed a type of formula for their buildings and their pieces of artRead MoreThe Influence of the Greeks and Romans on Architecture894 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction â€Å"Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for timelessness.† (Gehry, 2012). What Frank Gehry was trying to say in simple terms was our culture cannot do without proper appreciation of its classical roots and it goes without saying that the Romans and Greeks have influenced art and architecture with its classical style in a number of different ways. Allow me to give a definition for the word classical. â€Å"Classical† refers to any art or architecture modelled after ancientRead MoreImportance Of Greek Art And Architecture1868 Words   |  8 Pages Importance of Greek Art and Architecture Student’s Name University Affiliation Date The Greek culture fascinates the young and the old, the scholar and the tourist, the Greek and the foreigner. The Geek artifacts have demonstrated unique and ageless artisanship. From the buildings to the paintings, the pieces of ancient artifacts indicate symbolic meanings of the ancient Greek society. The citizens nurtured this practice over particular periods in since the history of its existenceRead More Classical Greek Architecture Essay1279 Words   |  6 PagesClassical Greek Architecture The reuse of older art works in contemporary times is not an uncommon occurrence, and many examples can be seen throughout the day as one goes from place to place. Even when one is browsing through the World Wide Web can many uses of older art and architecture be seen, as with the example shown. This image was found on the internet at the American Express homepage (http://www.americanexpress.com/student/), which functions as a resource for college students to findRead MoreAncient Roman And Greek Architecture1275 Words   |  6 PagesModern Architecture around the globe had been influenced by ancient Roman and Greek architectural. Although both ancient Romans and Greeks are recognized for their innovations in architecture having both constructed a variety of buildings and structures that can still be appreciated today, they appear to have concentrated mostly on the creation of temples which at first sight seem similar but in reality they each diverged and had their own identity and s erved for different purposes. Ancient Greek andRead MoreEssay about Greek and Gothic Architecture948 Words   |  4 PagesGothic Architecture Have you ever noticed the style in the buildings of your city? Well the style comes from an antique type of architecture called gothic architecture. The buildings now days have many developed characteristics from this style. Gothic architecture brought to the world many new features; the most important was the ogival arch, it helped the structure of the buildings and their inside designs. Gothic architecture started when the roman empire declined and the middle ages arose.Read MoreEssay about Greek and Japanese Architecture865 Words   |  4 PagesGreek and Japanese Architecture For a great many years, architecture has been a breaking point for different artisticeras in history. Some of the most famous â€Å"works of art† have been chapels, temples, and tombs. Among the most dominant and influential eras of great architecture are the sophisticated, stoic Greeco-Roman periods and the more mystical, elemental Japanese eras. These two very distinct and very different eras have more in common than you may realize. When work began on the

Friday, December 27, 2019

Informative Speech Children And Adults With Adhd Are No...

1. Decide on Speech Topic: ADHD 2.General Purpose : To Inform 3. General Purpose Statement: To Inform the audience about the common neurobehavioral disorder, ADHD. 4. Write Thesis Statement: No less children and adults with ADHD are no less intelligent than another person. OUTLINE FORMAT I. Introduction: A. Attention-getting material: Just Imagine! You are trying to get an assignment done for either school or work. You know you need to get it done, and you know you can do it. But it seems like your mind keeps wandering off and you soon realize that you’ve wasted hours that could have been used to finish the assignment. You try to get back into focus yet your mind wanders again, and again until soon you have to rush to get it done, and risk doing poorly, if you get it done at all. Unfortunately, this is just one of many scenarios for people who have grown up and are living with ADHD. B. Credibility-establishing material: I myself have ADHD and I was diagnosed as a child. C. Thesis statement: D. Preview: (transition into body of speech) Now I suppose the question you are asking now is what is ADHD? II. Body of Speech A. Main point #1: Well, to start, ADHD is short for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting 3 – 5% of children worldwide, all starting before the age of seven. I myself was diagnosed at the mere age of 7 1/2 years old! 1. SubpointShow MoreRelatedPeculiarities of Euphemisms in English and Difficulties in Their Translation19488 Words   |  78 Pagesman. It is necessary not only to transmit every word, thought, but also to express the emotive state and courage of certain article; to save its national color and expressiveness having set out a system of the language and peculiarities of foreign speech with the help of the native language. People have to broaden without bounds their opportunities of translation, to create irreproachable and immense storehouses of information. Read More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 PagesEducation (GAISE Guidelines),† which included the following six recommendations for the introductory statistics course: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Emphasize statistical literacy and develop statistical thinking. Use real data. Stress conceptual understanding rather than mere knowledge of procedures. Foster active learning in the classroom. Use technology for developing conceptual understanding and analyzing data. Use assessments to improve and evaluate student learning. Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis